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Development of FSM Business Model and Plan in Four Municipalities

Project Details

  • Client: SNV Nepal-WASH SDG Programme
  • Location: Nepalgunj Sub-metropolitan city (Banke), Khadak Municipality (Saptari), Chandannath Municipality (Jumla) and Birendranagar Municipality (Surkhet)
  • Year: Jun 2021-Oct 2021


The emergence of on-site sanitation has seen a growth in low-income countries like Nepal but the problems related to its systemized management for a sustainable operation is of major concern. To address this issue, a proposal to develop a tailor-made Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) business model and plans for four emerging cities of Nepal has been prepared.


The overall objective of the project is to develop tailor-made Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) business models and business plans relevant to the local context of Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan City and Birendranagar municipality and to explore the sustainable short term and long-term market entrepreneurial opportunities in FSM for Khadak Municipality and Chandannath Municipality.

First Phase:

· Explore and assess the key enablers for FSM including FSM/sanitation policy, draft CWIS guidelines for Nepal, regulatory frameworks, institutional roles and responsibilities and arrangement, technological options and knowledge application

· Explore and assess the key supporters for FSM including technology solutions, containment upgradation, funding and financial considerations

· Development of framework, key questionnaire and checklists for business plan and model development

Second Phase:

· Identify the gaps in competencies of the various stakeholders (Municipalities, private operators, manual service providers) for FSM implementation through FGD and KII

· Development of business model and plan and explore market entrepreneurial opportunities

· Facilitate ownership of the model by the municipality

· Outline requirements of capacity building training package for service providers

Photograph 1: Business Model Briefing to deputy Mayor and municipality staffs


Photograph 2: Debriefing on FSM Business Model findings in Chandannath Municipality



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